// Updated 1-11-11

Christian Denominations

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My humble opinions are in RED type.

This is a glossary for many religions.

If you would like to see a term added, please email Rev. Su!!

Theology Concepts,
Vocabulary & Definitions
from Many Religions


BELIEFS OF PRESENT-DAY CHRISTIAN DENOMINATIONS 

Adventists, Seventh-day

Foundation:1831 in the USA
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body: General Conference
Prophet(s): Ellen G. White
Sacred Text(s): OT, NT, White's writings
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Adventist
Adventist Doctrine(s) Held:

Fundamentalism, Trinitarianism, Original Sin, Redemption through Christ's Sacrifice, Resurrection of Christ, Resurrection of the Dead (Second Coming), Angels as Active Guides, Personal Worship, Communal Worship, Evangelicalism, Symbolic Eucharist, Humans as Adopted Children of God, "Remnant", Baptism by Immersion, Active Spiritual Gifts, Justification by Faith, Evening-to-evening Sabbath, Modesty, Tithe, Temperance, No Interfaith Marriage, Divorce only for Adultery, Christ's Preparation for the Second Coming Began in 1844, Apocolyptic Millenium, Second Resurrection of the Sinful and Cleansing of the New Earth, Footwashing


African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.)

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Reformed-Methodist
Doctrine(s) Held:

 

Amana Society, Community of True Inspiration

Foundation: 1714, Germany; in Amana, Iowa since 1842
Split from: Protestantism
Supreme Leader: none
Presiding Body: none
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Communistic

Amish

Foundation:
Split from: Anabaptist
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s): OT, NT
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:Anabaptist (Believer Baptism)
Doctrine(s) Held: Pacifism, Nonparticipation in Civil Government, Simple Living, No Musical Instruments, Modesty, Woman's Veiling (Head Covering), Fundamentalism, Apostolic Tradition, Justification by Faith, Kingdom of Satan on Earth Opposes God's Kingdom in Heaven

 

Hutterites

Foundation: John Hutter
Split from: Calvinist Reformed
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Anabaptist (Believer Baptism)
Doctrine(s) Held: Adult Baptism

 

Anglican (Church of England)

Foundation: 1521-1539 by Henry VIII of England, peaked in 17th century CE
Split from: Roman Catholic
Supreme Leader: Archbishop of Canterbury
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s): OT, NT, Book fo Common Prayer, early Christian commentary and Councils
Local Religious Leader: Priest
Doctrinal Family: Western Liturgical
Doctrine(s) Held:

Rejects Papal authority, Divorce is allowed, Promotion of a more elaborate liturgy and an aesthetic that valued visual representation and beauty in church architecture, art and furnishings

Aphthartodocetae

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Aquarians, Hydroparastatae

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Assembly of God

Foundation: 1914 in the U.S.A.
Split from:
Supreme Leader: none
Presiding Body: autonomous, but loosely affiliated
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Pentacostal
Doctrine(s) Held:

Assyrian Christians, Nestorians

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Baptist, Landmark

Anabaptist (Believer Baptism)

Baptist, Particular

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Baptist, Southern

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:Minister (Reverend)
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

 

Cainites

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

 

Cathar Church, Assembly of Good Christians

Foundation:
Split from: Maintained early Church traditions while the R.C.C. split away
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body: General Conference
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Anabaptist, House Church Movement
Doctrine(s) Held: Pacifism, Nonresistance, Nonparticipation in Civil Government, non-Evangelical, Simple Living, Apostolic Fellowship

 

Reformed Church, Calvinist

Foundation:
Split from: Lutheran
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader: Minister (Reverend)
Doctrinal Family: Reformed-Presbyterian
Doctrine(s) Held: Predestination

 

Christadelphians

Foundation: ca. 1849 as a grassroots movement by John Thomas
Split from: Protestant
Supreme Leader: none
Presiding Body: none
Sacred Text(s): OT, NT
Local Religious Leader: Administrator elected by the Ecclesia
Doctrinal Family: House Church Movement
Doctrine(s) Held:

Apostolic Fellowship, Fundamentalism, Symbolic Eucharist, Original Sin, Resurrection of Christ, Baptism, Justification by Faith, Resurrection of the Dead, Unitarianism, Anti-Human Soul Immortality, Anti-Spiritual Gifts, Anti-Reprobation, Anti-Heaven Afterlife, Anti-Satan, Evangelism, Jesus as Human, Believer Baptism by Immersion, Second Coming of Christ, Pacifism

 

Christian Science

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Chrsitian Science-Metaphysical
Doctrine(s) Held:

 

Christianity

Foundation:
Split from: Judaism
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrine(s) Held:

 

Church of God in Christ

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Congregationalist

Foundation: 1550's in England
Split from: Protestantism
Supreme Leader: none
Presiding Body: autonomous, but loosely affiliated
Sacred Text(s): OT, NT
Local Religious Leader: Pastor
Doctrinal Family: Reformed-Presbyterian
Doctrine(s) Held:

 

Coptic Orthodox, Assyrian Orthodox

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader: Priest
Doctrinal Family: Western Liturgical
Doctrine(s) Held:

Donatism

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Anabaptist (Believer Baptism)

Doukhobors

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held: Pacifism

 

Episcopal, American

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Western Liturgical
Doctrine(s) Held:

Ethiopian Church

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Evangelical United Brethren Church

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Anabaptist (Believer Baptism)
Doctrine(s) Held:

Free Church Federal Council

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Free Methodists, Wesleyans (see also United Methodist)

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Pietist-Methodist
Doctrine(s) Held:

Gnostic

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

 

Greek Orthodox

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Western Liturgical
Doctrine(s) Held:

Iconoclasm

Hesychasm

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Holiness Churches (see also Nazarene, Church of the)

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Huguenot Church

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Jehovah's Witness, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, International Bible Students

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Jews for Jesus

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Messianic Judaism
Doctrine(s) Held:

Lutheran

Foundation: 1517 by Martin Luther during Protestant Reformation
Split from: Roman Catholic
Supreme Leader: National Bishops
Presiding Body: Synod, elected delegates
Sacred Text(s): OT, NT
Local Religious Leader: Pastor
Doctrinal Family: Lutheran
Doctrine(s) Held: Justification by faith alone (not works)

Malabar Christians, Thomas Christians

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Mandaeans

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Mennonite, Church of the Brethren, Church Amish, Dunkers, Tunkers, German Baptists

Foundation: 1708 in Germany
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s): OT, NT, Schleitheim Confession
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Anabaptist (Believer Baptism)
Doctrine(s) Held:

Trinitarian, Jesus Was Fully Human and Fully Divine, Believer Baptism by Submersion, Woman's Inferiority and Veiling (Head Covering), Nonresistance, Nonparticipation in Civil Government, Justification by Faith and Works, Evangelism, Symbolic Eucharist Accompanied by an Agape Meal, No Interfaith Marriage, Bi-Gender Marriage, No Oaths, Pacifism, Resurrection of the Dead, Resurrection of Christ, Footwashing, Life Begins at Conception, Anti-Contraception, Anti-Euthanasia, Anti-Abortion, Pro-Organ/Body Donation, No Divorce, Celibate Separation, Remarriage of Widows, Homosexulaity as Sin, Simple Living

Messianic Judaism

Foundation:
Split from: Judaism
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Moravian (Bohemian) Brethren

Foundation: The Bohemian Brethren tradition was 'renewed' in 1722 under the guidance of Count Zinzendorf
Split from: Lutheran
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Anabaptist (Believer Baptism)
Doctrine(s) Held: some elements of Pietism

Mormans, LDS, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

Foundation: In 1830, Joseph Smith met the angel, Moroni, on Hill Cumorah in Palmyra NY and was revealed the Book of Mormon
Split from: Protestant
Supreme Leader: President
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s): OT, NT, Book of Mormon
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrine(s) Held: Adventist, Post-Resurrection ministry in North America by Jesus, the post-apocalyptic city of Zion will be built in the western hemisphere.

Muggletonians (extinct since 1979)

Foundation: Around 1651 by Ludowicke Muggleton and his cousin
Split from: Protestant
Supreme Leader: unknown
Presiding Body: unknown
Sacred Text(s): OT, NT
Local Religious Leader: unknown
Doctrine(s) Held:

Unitarianism, Jesus was fully divine, During the time God was incarnated in Jesus, Elijah ran the divine 'government' in his place.

NOTE: This list only contains present day Christian denominations, but I ran across this group in my studies and I just had to include it because of the name. Weasley the King!

Nazarene, Church of the (see also Holiness Churches)

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Pentacostals

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Presbyterian

Foundation:
Split from: Lutheran
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Protestant

Foundation:
Split from: Roman Catholic
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body: Synod
Sacred Text(s): OT, NT
Local Religious Leader: Pastor
Doctrine(s) Held:

Quakers, Society of Friends, Friends of Truth

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Anabaptist (Believer Baptism)
Doctrine(s) Held:

George Fox

Ranters

Foundation: 17th century (now extinct)
Split from: Roman Catholic or Protestant
Supreme Leader: none
Presiding Body: none
Sacred Text(s): none
Local Religious Leader: self-regulated
Doctrinal Family:

Doctrine(s) Held: Inward experience of Christ is paramount, denial of Scripture, the Creeds, and official church hierarchy

NOTE: This list only contains present day Christian denominations, but I ran across this group in my studies and it intrigued me because it shares so many characteristics with Paganism. So I included it. "It's good to be the King."

Reformed Episcopal

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Reformed Presbytery

Foundation: By dissent in 1690, then organized in 1743, many congregations joined the Free Church of Scotland in 1876 but some remained independent
Split from: Presbyterian Church of Scotland
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body: Presbytery
Sacred Text(s): Old and New Testament
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Calvinist
Doctrine(s) Held:

Roman Catholic

Foundation: Codified in the 4th century
Split from: Judaism
Supreme Leader: Pope (Rome, Italy)
Presiding Body: Enclave of Cardinals ??
Sacred Text(s): OT, NT, Papal writings, Writings of Saints
Local Religious Leader: Priest, Canon, Deacon
Doctrinal Family: Western Liturgical
Doctrine(s) Held:

Infallibility of the Pope, Trinitarian, Resurrectino of the Dead, Resurrection of Christ, Justification by Faith and Works, Intercession for Forgiveness of Sin, Blessed Virgin Mary, Celibate Clergy, Non-Married Clergy, Monasticism, Seven Sacraments, Transubstatiation in Eucharist, Annual Eucharist

Salvation Army

Foundation:1865 for the purpose of evangelism through social work
Split from: Evangelical Protestantism
Supreme Leader: General
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s): OT, NT
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Evangelism, Rejection of all Sacraments

Seekers

Foundation: early 17th century
Split from: Puritans
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Anabaptist (Believer Baptism)
Doctrine(s) Held: No true Christian Church has existed since the Antichrist became uppermost in the Church, God will "in his own time" ordain new Apostles or Phrophets to found a new Church.

Shakers

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family: Anabaptist (Believer Baptism)
Doctrine(s) Held:

Tunkers

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrine(s) Held:

Unitarian Universalist

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrine(s) Held:

United Church of Christ, Disciples of Christ

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

United Free Church

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrine(s) Held:

United Methodist

Foundation:
Split from:
Supreme Leader:
Presiding Body:
Sacred Text(s):
Local Religious Leader:
Doctrinal Family:
Doctrine(s) Held:

 

 

Sources: Dictionary.com, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Religioustolerance.org