Vocabulary & Definitions
from Many Religions
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The branch of philosophy that deals with the origin, evolution and nature or structure of the space, time, causality and freedom. Cosmologies may or may not include Divinity.
Empiracism, Empiracal Observation
Literally meaning ‘the study of how knowledge is determined’, epistemology is a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human factual knowledge, its presuppositions, foundations, and validity. This is a vast field of study.
There are basically two types of knowledge: a priori (knowledge gained independently of experience or empirical proof) and a posteriori (knowledge derived from experience).
A quantum mechanical explanation of reality that suggests the physical universe is a giant time-space hologram (the entirety is within each facet) leading to the concept that every moment - past, present, and possible - exists simultaneously. Likewise, every place exists everywhere. We perceive a series of images in highest probable order based on our experiences and our own psychological filters.
In vitalism, the functions of a living organism cannot be explained by scientific laws alone, but are in fact due to a vital principle (humors, spark, energy, qi, soul, force, etc.) that is in some part self-determining and is distinct from biochemical reactions. This concept goes all the way back to Plato, Aristotle and Hippocrates. Vitalistic thought is also prevalent among children when asked about life.
Whether scientists attributed this vital force to mystical origins (i.e., Divinity) many throughout history believe it exists. Egyptian scientist, Aristotle (322 BCE), Wolff (1794), Kant (1804), Mesmer (1815), Blumenbach (1840), Hahnemann (1843), Berzelius (1848), Mill (1873), Pasteur (1895), Freud (1939), Driesch (1941), Reichenbach (1953), Jung (1961), Sperry (1994), Mayr (2005), Keating (2007), Claus Emmeche (U Copenhagen), Marc Kirshner (Harvard Medical School), and Timothy Michison (Harvard Medical School), in one way or another felt that biology has a component beyond the physical.
A modern refinement of vitalism is emergentism.